Clean fuels for transport from agro-forestry waste. RESTOENE-2-CM, S2013/MAE-2882



Madrid Science Week is an event for scientific communication and citizen participation organized by Fundación Madri+d which offers the public the opportunity to learn about the work of scientists, their research, motivation and efforts. Lets society know the latest advances of science. Madrimasd


Of the many reforms that the Spanish system of science and technology needs, of governance may be which is less clear to citizens. The political programmes have an impact on the need to "democratize" or "professionalize" the governance of science, but the details escape (or elude) and misunderstandings and fears arise. To understand what is at stake, you have to understand now does the governance of the research centres. To explain it briefly, we will refer to three groups: universities, large public research institutions, State (CSIC, etc.) and the new IPOs generally organized as foundations (national centre of research Oncologics, CNIO, etc). Public Spanish universities are organized according to determined the LOMLOU: rectors are elected by universal suffrage by "collectives"-weighted (teachers in different castes, students, administration and services staff) in a system similar to the one of the South Africa of apartheid or the force in Lebanon. The guiding react when two bodies: the cloister (also chosen by collective) and the Social Council (named basically by public administrations, counting with representatives of employers, trade unions etc.). Ciencia con Futuro


European Researchers' Night of Madrid is a project of scientific popularization, being held simultaneously in 250 cities since 2005. In the Community of Madrid is promoted by the Consejería de Educación, Juventud y Deporte and coordinated by Fundación Madri+d. This project is funded by the European Union within the Horizon 2020 programme for research and innovation in the EU under the agreement grant number 721631. Madri+d

Biodiesel directly from the URJC cafe frying oil

A research group at the Universidad Rey Juan Carlos generates biodiesel, at a pilot plant located in the center of technological support from the University, from the University cafeteria from frying oil. [Author: R. Sánchez Vázquez - URJC]. Juan Antonio Melero, Professor of chemical engineering, is responsible for one of the research lines of the Group of chemical engineering and environmental of the Rey Juan Carlos University, focused on the search for renewable and sustainable energy alternatives for transport. In an interview conducted by Cadena Ser Radio Station, Melero explains some of the lines of research in which they work. These lines are focused in obtaining biofuels from second generation from waste raw materials, on the one hand, oily waste and, secondly, lignocellulosic waste. The research group led by Melero uses the University cafeteria cooking oil to produce biodiesel. Waste oil is transformed, without any previous treatment at a reactor in continuous scale pilot located in the center of technological support from the University. The biodiesel obtained after the process has very good physical and chemical properties and complies with the parameters established by the normative UNE-EN 14214, so it could be used in conventional diesel engines. ENERGY AND SUSTAINABILITY BLOG. GIQA Link Chemical and Enviroment Engineering Group GIQA-URJC

Paris Climate Conference

[Authors: D. Herranz, P. Ocón. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid] Climate change is a global problem that increasingly are going getting awareness which is helping countries recognize its severity and they are taking the steps to your solution. This concern was born the international conferences on climate change of which the last one, the COP21, held in Paris (France), from November 30 to December 11, 2015. The Conference was attended by 45000 participants and a total of 195 countries have participated. Before the Conference was held a meeting in Bonn, from 19 to 23 October 2015, attended by the Ministers of the environment around the world. The aim of the Conference was to achieve universal and binding climate agreement and more specifically on emissions of greenhouse gases. This goal has been achieved since with the adoption of the Paris agreement has been achieved for the first time in history a universal agreement on methods to reduce climate change. The agreement will be legally binding if at least 55 countries that you represent at least 55 percent of global emissions of greenhouse gases adhere to it through the signature followed by ratification, acceptance, approval or accession. The period for signing it has been established between April 22, 2016 and April 21, 2017 and the agreement will be applied from 2020.Los points reached that agreement have been: keep the increase in average global temperature well below 2°C with respect to the pre-industrial era developed countries should provide financial resources to developing countries so that they can continue to grow and do so in a sustainable way, in particular agrees to give jointly between developed countries in 100,000 million euros annually from the 2020 should be revised upward by 2025, each country which ratifies the agreement will necessarily set a goal of reducing emissions that will be voluntary , and in case of breaking it will lead the country to be designated and encouraged to improve. Neither national targets and funding commitments are legally vicunlantes. The conclusions that have been removed from this agreement vary enough, since positive considerations as "When we came to Paris, the goal of limiting the temperature rise to 2°C was not even in the text and today we are talking about that quote a willingness to work towards a limit of 1.5°C by 2100" of the Spanish Minister of environment , Isabel García Tejerinaó "for businesses, the text is very positive because it gives a very clear signal to the long-term investment with a very ambitious of 2nd goal and even down to 1.5°C according to sources of the World Business Council for sustainable development until much more critical considerations like "despite the positive publicity, Paris agreement fails to meet the expectations. Politicians claim that it is an agreement fair and ambitious, but it is exactly the opposite. Is he is misleading people"of DiptiBhatnagar, Coordinator of the climate justice program and friends of the earth international energy or"missed an opportunity to strengthen and internationalize a change of model based on renewables, which hold 80% of fossil resources underground, brake the extractive industry and conforms to the planetary boundaries"of Ecologistas en Acción that have also said the agreement that "has been chosen instead by enshrining the commodification of climate and the 'false solutions'". There are also many opinions that they consider it a step positive but still insufficient, as reflected for example in the words of the director of Greenpeace International, KumiNaidoo "the Paris agreement is only one step in a long road, and there are parties in this agreement which are frustrating and disappointing, but it is a step forward. The agreement itself only not us will get out of the hole in which we are involved, but makes out slope less steep ". ENERGY AND SUSTAINABILITY BLOG. UAM Group Link Physical Chemical UAM Group

XV Science Week

The week of the science of Madrid is one of the most important events of science in Europe. This fifteenth edition is home to more than 600 organizations with the common goal of bringing science and technology to the citizens. Science week is organised by the General Directorate of universities and research of the Ministerio de Educación, youth and sport of the community of Madrid, through Fundación Madri+d to the target knowledge. The target is put within the reach of all citizens the subjects that interest them, discover them research centers and activities in them as places of work to improve our lives. An extensive program of workshops, guided tours, days of open doors, etc. makes up this scientific culture event. Universities, research centers, scientific societies, NGOs, companies, museums, foundations, scientific associations and Government agencies will open their doors for two weeks, organizing more than 900 free activities. From open days to cinema and exhibitions, through round tables, lectures and interesting excursions and itineraries led by specialists. More than 3,000 scientists from fields as diverse as geology, Neurobiology, astrophysics, psychology, architecture and prehistory, among others, have embarked on the exciting adventure to share with the public their daily work, their discoveries, their doubts and their mishaps.

La Noche Europea de los Investigadores Madrid 2015

La Noche Europea de los Investigadores Madrid 2015 es un proyecto europeo de divulgación científica enmarcado en Horizonte 2020, Programa Marco de investigación e innovación de la UE, promovido por la Consejería de Educación, Juventud y Deporte y coordinado por la Fundación para el Conocimiento madri+d, que tiene lugar simultáneamente en más de 300 ciudades europeas desde 2005. La Noche Europea de los Investigadores Madrid 2015, se celebrará la noche del 25 de septiembre en diferentes localidades de la Comunidad de Madrid. Su principal objetivo es acercar los investigadores a los ciudadanos para que conozcan su trabajo, los beneficios que aportan a la sociedad y su repercusión en la vida cotidiana. Todo ello en el marco de actividades festivas y lúdicas, cuyos protagonistas son tanto los ciudadanos como los investigadores. Durante la Noche Europea de los Investigadores Madrid 2015 se desarrollarán 28 actividades en diferentes localidades de la Comunidad de Madrid entre las 16:00 y las 24:00 horas.

Audi Has Made Diesel From Water And Carbon Dioxide

German car manufacturer Audi has declared that they have been able to create an "e-diesel," or diesel containing ethanol, by using renewable energy to produce a liquid fuel from nothing more than water and carbon dioxide. After a commissioning phase of just four months, the plant in Dresden operated by clean tech company Sunfire has managed to produce its first batch of what they’re calling “blue crude.” The product liquid is composed of long-chain hydrocarbon compounds, similar to fossil fuels, but free from sulfur and aromatics and therefore burns soot-free.

Transformación de biomasa lignocelulósica en biocarburantes oxigenados de elevada densidad energética

La escasez de los recursos fósiles y su elevado impacto ambiental como consecuencia de las emisiones de CO2 a la atmósfera está originando en la actualidad la búsqueda de alternativas energéticas más sostenibles y renovables para el transporte. Un transporte más sotenible implica una mayor diversificación e independencia de los combustibles fósiles y que sea medioambientalmente limpio (calidad del aire urbano y reducción de emisiones de CO2). Para la sostenibilidad del motor de combustión interna en lo relativo a la reducción de las emisiones de CO2 una de las alternativas es el uso de biocarburantes y en especial los de segunda generación (procedentes de materis primas no alimentarias y en general con carácter residual).

Gas Natural frente a Diesel en vehículos pesados: comparando las implicaciones climáticas de ambos combustibles

En los últimos años se está asistiendo a la introducción del gas natural como combustible en vehículos debido a sus ventajas medioambientales frente al diésel en lo que se refiere a reducción de emisiones. Sin embargo la mayor bondad medioambiental de los vehículos alimentados por metano ha sido puesta en duda en un reciente estudio científico en el que se comparan los efectos climáticos del uso de diésel o gas natural en vehículos pesados. Los investigadores del estudio han llegado a la conclusión de que los beneficios medioambientales del uso de metano como combustible en automoción pueden no llegar a serlo si no se implementan medidas para mejorar la eficiencia de los motores alimentados por metano y se reducen las emisiones de metano en la cadena de producción y suministro de dicho gas.

Hacia la modelización energética de la Comunidad de Madrid: el modelo LEAP-Madrid

En las últimas décadas, el cambio climático se ha posicionado como una de las principales amenazas en el camino hacia la sostenibilidad. A pesar de que el Protocolo de Kioto entró en vigor en febrero de 2005, desde una perspectiva global su efectividad ambiental es limitada debido a la falta de participación de ciertos países y ciudades clave. Por lo tanto, son necesarias nuevas políticas que hagan frente de manera exitosa al incremento en las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero. En este sentido, la consideración de modelos energéticos que engloben vías alternativas y una planificación energética a largo plazo es cada vez más importante para equilibrar adecuadamente las necesidades energéticas de una región con aspectos económicos, sociales y ambientales. El modelo “LEAP-Madrid” se ha desarrollado en la Unidad de Análisis de Sistemas del Instituto IMDEA Energía. Este modelo representa el sistema energético completo de la Comunidad de Madrid y constituye una herramienta de análisis de escenarios para explorar oportunidades actuales y retos futuros. Dada la disponibilidad de datos relevantes, el año base del modelo es 2010. El software “Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning system” (LEAP), ampliamente utilizado para el análisis de políticas energéticas y medidas de mitigación del cambio climático, fue el elegido para el desarrollo de este modelo energético.

Membranas de intercambio con aplicaciones energéticas

Una membrana semipermeable (o membrana de intercambio) es una lámina delgada que permite que ciertas moléculas o iones pasen a través de ella por difusión. Este paso de sustancias depende de factores inherentes a la membrana, como la afinidad química por los solutos; a los propios solutos, como el tamaño, o su solubilidad; o de otros factores relacionados con el entorno, como la presión osmótica, la concentración, el gradiente electroquímico o la temperatura en cualquiera de los lados de la membrana [1]. En la naturaleza podemos encontrar ejemplos de membranas semipermeables en las bicapas lipídicas que forman parte de la membrana celular o que envuelven el núcleo de las células. Y, de forma artificial pero inspirados en estas bicapas lipídicas, podemos hablar de los liposomas empleados para el suministro de determinados medicamentos [2]. Además, existen otros tipos de membranas de intercambio que han sido profundamente estudiadas y empleadas industrialmente, en campos tan diversos como la ósmosis inversa, la nano-, ultra- y microfiltración, la pervaporación o la electrodiálisis [3].

Proyecto CLAMBER “Castilla-La Mancha Bio-Economy Region”

El proyecto “CLAMBER Castilla-La Mancha Bio Economy Region” es un proyecto transversal de la Junta de Comunidades de Castilla-La Mancha, que se desarrolla en función del convenio firmado entre el IVICAM y el Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad. El Proyecto CLAMBER es una apuesta de la Comunidad de Castilla-La Mancha para convertir a esta región en el referente en el Sur de Europa en la Investigación relacionada con el aprovechamiento biotecnológico de las diferentes biomasas existentes en la región, así como nuevos cultivos y subproductos de la Industria y los residuos. Castilla-La Mancha quiere desarrollar una nueva Bioeconomía basada en el aprovechamiento biotecnológico de la materia orgánica renovable como alternativa más limpia y más sostenible a la actual economía dependiente de los recursos fósiles, que además una de las prioridades de la estrategia económica y tecnológica de la Unión Europea.

¿Cuánta energía tienen los posos del café?

La escasez de los recursos fósiles y su elevado impacto ambiental como consecuencia de las emisiones de CO2 a la atmósfera está originando en la actualidad la búsqueda de alternativas energéticas más sostenibles y renovables. En este sentido la valorización energética de residuos de bajo coste es una alternativa muy interesante. Diferentes grupos de investigación estudian la obtención de energía a partir de los posos del café.